Comparing with typical extraction devices, such as columns and mixing settlers, CEs exhibit the following main features
- Compact devices, and this includes both small footprints and low heights.
2. Short residence times of the processed liquids.
3. Sharp liquid-liquid separation under high g-force fields.
4. Very low liquid hold-up, which is favorable in case of expensive or flammable solvents, giving better safety conditions.
5. High energy input to unit volume of processed liquids, ensuring intensive mixing and very efficient mass transfer.
6. Fast start-up and shutdown procedures, where steady-state conditions can be reached quickly and even maintained after shutting down a cascade of single stages.